A scandal is a widely publicized incident that involves allegations of wrongdoing, disgrace, or moral outrage. A scandal may be based on reality, the product of false allegations, or a mixture of both. From the Greek σκάνδαλον, which was a stone intentionally placed to trip someone. Some scandals are broken by whistleblowers who reveal wrongdoing within organizations or groups, most notably Deep Throat (William Mark Felt) during the 1970s Watergate scandal that involved President Richard Nixon. Falsely alleged scandals can lead to witch-hunts against the innocent. Sometimes an attempt to cover up a scandal ignites a greater scandal when the cover-up fails. Classes of scandals include:
* Political scandals
* Academic scandals
* Sporting scandals (especially Olympic Games scandals)
Human sexual behavior
Human sexual behavior or human sexual practices or human sexual activities refers to the manner in which humans experience and express their sexuality. It encompass a wide range of activities such as strategies to find or attract partners (mating and display behaviour), interactions between individuals, physical or emotional intimacy, and sexual contact.
Although some cultures hold that sexual activity is acceptable only within marriage, extramarital sexual activities still takes place within such cultures. Unprotected sex poses a risk in unwanted pregnancy or sexually transmitted diseases. Some sexual activities are illegal either universally or in some countries, and some are considered against the norms of a society. For example, sexual activities with a minor is taboo as is sexual abuse of individuals in general.
As a basic instinct, the sexual drive can be expressed through activity without a partner, through masturbation and/or sexual fantasy, however "sexual activity" normally refers to acts involving at least two people.
Aspects of human sexual behavior
Sexual pleasure is pleasure derived from any kind of sexual activity, most commonly masturbation and sexual intercourse. Though orgasm (sexual climax) is generally known, sexual pleasure includes erotic pleasure during foreplay, and pleasure due to fetish or BDSM.
As with other behaviors, human intelligence and complex societies have produced among the most complicated sexual behaviors of any animal. Most people experiment with a range of sexual activities during their lives, though they tend to engage in only a few of these regularly. Most people enjoy some sexual activities. However, most societies have defined some sexual activities as inappropriate (wrong person, wrong activity, wrong place, etc.) Some people enjoy many different sexual activities, while others avoid sexual activities altogether for religious or other reasons (see chastity, sexual abstinence). Some societies and religions view sex as appropriate only within marriage.
Social norms and rules
Human sexual behavior, like many other kinds of activity engaged in by human beings, is generally governed by social rules that are culturally specific and vary widely. These social rules are referred to as sexual morality (what can and can not be done by society's rules) and sexual norms (what is and is not expected). In the
Sexual ethics, morals, and norms relate to issues including deception/honesty, legality, fidelity and consent. Some activities, known as sex crimes in some locations, are illegal in some jurisdictions, including those conducted between (or among) consenting and competent adults (examples include sodomy law and adult-adult incest).
Some people who are in a relationship but want to hide homosexual or heterosexual activity from their partner, may solicit consensual sexual activity with others through personal contacts, online chat rooms, or, advertising in select media.
Some people engage in various sexual activities as a business transaction. When this involves having sex with, or performing certain actual sexual acts for another person in exchange for money or something of value, it is called prostitution. Other aspects of the adult industry include (for example) telephone sex operators, strip clubs, pornography and the like.
Nearly all developed societies consider it a serious crime to force someone to engage in sexual behavior or to engage in sexual behavior with someone who does not consent. This is called sexual assault, and if sexual penetration occurs it is called rape, the most serious kind of sexual assault. The details of this distinction may vary among different legal jurisdictions. Also, precisely what constitutes effective consent to have sex varies from culture to culture and is frequently debated. Laws regulating the minimum age at which a person can consent to have sex (age of consent) are frequently the subject of political and moral debate, as is adolescent sexual behavior in general. Additionally, many societies have forced marriage, so consent does not really figure in to the equation of a sex crime.
Safety and ancillary issues
There are four main areas of risk in sexual activity, namely:
* choosing to trust a partner who is physically at risk
* seeking or engaging in an activity which is legally or culturally disapproved
* sexually transmitted disease
* unwanted pregnancy
These risks are raised by any condition (temporary or permanent) which impairs one's judgement, such as excess alcohol or other drugs, or emotional states such as loneliness, depression or euphoria. Carefully considered activity can greatly reduce all of these issues.
Sexual behaviors that involve contact with the bodily fluids of another person entail risk of transmission of sexually transmitted disease. Safe sex practices try to avoid this. These techniques are often seen as less necessary for those in committed relationships with persons known to be free of disease; see fluid bonding.
Due to health concerns arising from HIV/AIDS, chlamydia, syphilis, gonorrhea, HPV and other sexually transmitted infections, some people may want potential sex partners to be tested for STDs before engaging in sex.